Tuesday, April 2, 2013

Rabbis of the Khazars

For many years I have claimed that Agatha the mother of St Margaret of Scotland was a daughter of the Khazar Prince Solomon. His brother was Margad. Their father Manesseh (de jure Manesseh III of the Khazars) came to Scotland and Ireland after the fall of the Khazar Kingdom as a young boy (about 10) with his father the exiled King Joseph of Khazaria. This Solomon is mentioned in the king lists and genealogies of the kings of Dublin. St Margaret's name is a female version of the name of her uncle Margad a Khazar Prince that was also King of Dublin and a King of Leinster according to the old genealogies. His uncle also Margad was the first Khazar King of Moray in Scotland. It would seem that when Agatha fled with her children north into Scotland she was heading for the Kingdom of Moray ruled by her family. The famous King Somerled (Solomon) King of the Isles was named in honour of his ancestor Prince Solomon of the Khazars.

I was very pleased today to read in this entry in the Wikipedia on Agatha that an early source refers to the father of Agatha as Solomon. "...Agatha's origin is alluded to in numerous surviving medieval sources, but the information they provide is sometimes imprecise, often contradictory, and occasionally cannot possibly be correct. The earliest surviving source, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, along with Florence of Worcester's Chronicon ex chronicis and Regalis prosapia Anglorum, Simeon of Durham and Ailred of Rievaulx describe Agatha as a kinswoman of "Emperor Henry" (thaes ceseres magafilia germani imperatoris Henrici). In an earlier entry, the same Ailred of Rievaulx had called her a daughter of emperor Henry, as do later sources of dubious credibility such as the Chronicle of Melrose Abbey, while Matthew of Paris calls her the emperor's sister (soror Henrici imperatoris Romani). Geoffrey Gaimar in Lestoire des Engles states that she was daughter of the Hungarian king and queen (Li reis sa fille), although he places the marriage at a time when Edward is thought still to have been in Kiev, while Orderic Vitalis in Historiae Ecclesiasticae is more specific, naming her father as king Solomon (filiam Salomonis Regis Hunorum), actually a contemporary of Agatha's children. William of Malmesbury in De Gestis Regis Anglorum states that Agatha's sister was a Queen of Hungary (reginae sororem) and is echoed in this by Alberic of Trois-Fontaines, while, less precisely, Ailred says of Margaret that she was derived from English and Hungarian royal blood (de semine regio Anglorum et Hungariorum extitit oriunda). Finally, Roger of Howden and the anonymous Leges Edwardi Confessoris indicate that while Edward was a guest of Kievan "king Malesclodus" he married a woman of noble birth (nobili progenio), Leges adding that the mother of St Margaret was of Rus royal blood (ex genere et sanguine regum Rugorum)..." 

While Orderic Vitalis confuses Agatha's father Solomon with his relative King Solomon I of Hungary (who descends from the marriage of Princess Men of Khazaria to Duke Zoltan of Hungary) he nevertheless gets the correct name of her father as Solomon. King Solomon I of Hungary in fact lived a generation later. Agatha is descended via her parents Prince Solomon of the Scottish Khazars and Princess Ragna of Waterford and Dublin from the royal houses of Hungary and the Royal House of Russia. Agatha's mother Princess Ragna of Dublin and Waterford is a daughter of Princess Rogneda of Russia (a sister of Yaroslav the Wise). The origins of these families from powerful Jewish Princes was deliberately obscured to later generations. 

It would seem that Agatha's parents returned to Russia where Agatha's sister Margada married her relative Bryachislav Prince of Polatsk around 1040. Agatha's father Prince Solomon of the Scottish Khazars went to Hungary to assist his relative Andrew the White in claiming the throne of Hungary. It is here in Hungary that Edward the Exile the Atheling heir to the English throne met Agatha and married her around 1046.  King Andrew named his son Solomon after the father of Agatha.

1. Princess Margada of the Anglo-Saxons and Khazars (St. Margaret of Scotland) married Malcolm III King of Scots.
2. Princess Agatha of the Scottish Khazars married Edward the Exile heir to the Anglo-Saxon throne of England
3. Princess Ragna of Dublin and Waterford married Shlomo Prince of the Khazars
4. Princess Rogneda of Russia [sister of Izyaslav Prince of Polatsk (d.1001)] married Ragnall II King of Waterford
5. Lady Rogneda of Polatsk (962-1002)[sister of Sabina who married Prince Ragnall of Waterford] married Vladimir the Great of Russia
6. Princess Agatha of the Khazars (b.945) married Ragnvald (Ragnall) of Polatsk and Waterford son of Prince Ivar (Mar Ivar haAluf) of Waterford (d.950)
7. Lady Mariota of Hungary married Aharon II King of Khazaria
8. Princess Men of Bihar and Khazaria married Duke Zoltan of Hungary (ancestor of King Solomon I of Hungary)
9. Princess Adiva of England and Mercia (b.890) married Menumarot (Menachem) King of Bihar and Khazaria
10. Princess Aethelflaed of England (b.871) Queen of Mercia married Aethelred Lord of Mercia
11. Princess Ealswitha of Mercia (b.852) married Alfred the Great King of England